The independent market analyst Johann Biermann has compiled a list of graphs that shows how tough 2018 was for most assets. For many markets, last year proved the worst since the financial crisis a decade ago.

The JSE's top 40 index:

In rand, excluding dividends. (Johann Biermann)

The US S&P 500 index:

(Johann Biermann)

Euro Stoxx 50:

(Johann Biermann)

Shanghai Composite:

(Johann Biermann)

Gold:

(Johann Biermann)

Brent oil:

(Johann Biermann)

Bitcoin:

(Johann Biermann)

Rand versus dollar:

(Johann Biermann)

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